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科學美國人:頭骨決定聽力水平

zlxxm 于2019-12-30發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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新澤西州威廉·帕特森大學的心理學家邁克·戈登如發現:人們的聽覺方式實際上有很多變化。根據一個人頭骨的共振特性,有些頻率比平均頻率高或低幾十分貝。
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体育比分预测竞猜网站 www.010514.live Your Skull Shapes Your Hearing

頭骨決定聽力

Certain concert venues, like Boston's Symphony Hall, are known to beautifully reflect the sounds of an orchestra. It turns out there's a similar process at play in your cochlea, deep inside your ear - where a tiny bony cavity houses the organ that allows you to hear."It's like its own tiny little acoustics chamber, if you will. So anything and everything you hear is going into our ear, and then going into this little bony chamber."

某些音樂會場地,如波士頓交響音樂廳,以能完美地反映管弦樂隊的聲音而聞名。事實證明,在你耳朵深處的耳蝸中,也有一個類似的過程,在那里有一個很小的骨腔,容納著讓你能夠聽到聲音的器官。“它就像一個很小的聲學室,如果你同意這么說的話。所以你所聽到的一切都進入耳朵,然后進入這個小骨室。”

Mike Gordon, a psychologist at William Paterson University in New Jersey. But while studying this process, he also found there's actually a lot of variability in the way people hear. Some frequencies can appear tens of decibels louder or quieter than average - based on the resonant properties of a person's skull.

新澤西州威廉·帕特森大學的心理學家邁克·戈登如是說。但在研究這一過程的同時,他還發現,人們的聽覺方式實際上有很多變化。根據一個人頭骨的共振特性,有些頻率比平均頻率高或低幾十分貝。

We were shocked... my first version of the draft had exclamation points all over the place, but we eventually removed those from the final copy.First, Gordon's team gave 30 volunteers a hearing test - the standard type, where different frequencies of tones are played at varying loudness. Then, they did a "bone conduction" hearing test, where vibrations are transmitted directly onto the skull, from behind the ear.

“我們很震驚……我的初稿到處都是感嘆號,但我們最終從終稿中刪除了這些感嘆號。”首先,戈登的研究小組給30名志愿者做了一項聽力測試——標準的聽力測試,在不同的音量下播放不同頻率的音調。然后,他們做了一個“骨傳導”聽力測試,振動直接從耳朵后面傳到頭骨上。

Finally, they projected white noise like this <> through the skull, from behind the ear. And recorded what came out at the forehead. This is that white noise <> filtered through Gordon's skull: <>

最后,他們像這樣從耳朵后面將白噪聲投射到頭骨,并記錄了前額的變化。這是白噪音通過戈登的頭骨聲音的樣本。

With those filtered samples, they were able to see the unique spectral fingerprints each volunteer's skull left on the white noise, amplifying some frequencies and damping down others. And those ups and downs actually correlated to each volunteer's ability to perceive certain frequencies in the bone conduction hearing test. Meaning: "The skull itself, because it's such an intimate and personal thing, is going to shape your experience of the world perceptually." The findings appear in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.

通過這些過濾后的樣本,他們能夠看到每個志愿者留在白噪聲上的獨特的光譜指紋,有些頻率增強了,而有些則減弱了。這些起伏實際上與每個志愿者在骨傳導聽力測試中感知特定頻率的能力有關。意思是:“頭骨本身,因為它的親密性和私密性,將在感知上塑造你對世界的體驗。”研究結果發表在《美國聲學學會雜志》上。

Although the research is just preliminary, Gordon says there might be some intriguing therapeutic uses of this new insight. "What if we could cheaply and easily run broadband noise through someone's skull and look at how it filtered, and then do it again later... would it show us an injury? Well, it might if the skull changed dramatically, which could indicate a head injury." And, more trivially, he says, perhaps it could explain why you really can't stand that one singer everyone loves. Just blame it on the resonant properties of your skull.

雖然這項研究只是初步的,但戈登表示這一新發現可能應用為一些有趣的治療用途。“如果我們可以既廉價又容易地讓寬帶噪音通過某人的頭骨并觀察其過濾的過程,周而往復......”這能不能顯示出我們受傷了呢?嗯,如果頭骨發生了巨大的變化,這可能意味著頭部受傷了。”他說道。簡言之,這或許可以解釋為什么你真的無法忍受一個每個人都喜歡的歌手。這只能怪你頭骨的共振特性。

- Christopher Intagliata

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