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用英語說中國歷史名人:Sun Wu孫武(雙語閱讀)

Vera 于2015-08-05發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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用英語說中國歷史名人:Sun Wu孫武,介紹了歷史人物孫武的故事,含有中英雙語閱讀。

体育比分预测竞猜网站 www.010514.live Sun Wu (535 B. C.~480 B. C.),  whose courtesy name was Changqing,  was born at Le'an (now Huimin,Shandong Province).

孫武(公元前535年~公元前480年),字長卿,齊國樂安(今山東惠民)人,春秋末年著名軍事學家。

Revered as "Sun Zi", he was a well-known military strategist in late Spring and Autumn Period. To escape from domestic chaos, he took refuge in the State of Wu, where he was appointed general by the king. Under his command, the forces of Wu defeated the strong army of the State of Chu, subdued the people of the State of Yue, and deterred the states of Qi and Wei.

世稱“孫子”。因避亂奔吳,被吳王任命為將軍,西破強楚,南服越人,北威齊晉,為吳國立下汗馬功勞。

 Sun Wu's The Art of War, composed of 13 articles, was the first systematic book on military strategies and tactics in ancient China and one of the earliest works on military strategies and tactics in the world.

撰有《兵法》13篇,是中國古代第一部有系統的兵書,也是世界上最早的系統精辟地論述戰略戰術問題的軍事學著作。

In his theories, the art of war lies in the strategies of conquering the enemy.  He held that five factors are of pivotal importance in the military affairs, that is, dao ( the moral law ), tian (heaven),  di (earth), jiang (the commander),and fa (method and discipline).

在戰爭中,如何制敵取勝是孫子軍事學理論中首要的問題,他認為有5種因素最重要,即“道”、“天”、“地”、“將”、“法”。

Dao refers to political strategies, which require the monarch and his people to make concerted efforts to support the war.

“道”即政治,要求君民和衷共濟,上下同心同德。

Tian and di refer to the natural conditions in warfare.

“天”與“地”是白然條件,在戰爭中起重要作用。

Jiang refers to the qualities of the military commander,in which “zhi (wit), xin (credibility), ren (benevolence), yong(courage), yan (strictness)” are a must.

“將”指將帥的素質,孫子提出,將帥必須具備“智、信、仁、勇、嚴”5種品質。

Fa refers to the relevant rules and regulations during warfare. Decrees must be issued and the systems of penalties and rewards must be applied to reinforce these rules and regulations and to heighten morale.

“法”是制度規范,要建立健全的法令制度,運用賞罰的手段來加強法紀,激勵士氣。

In The Art of War, Sun Wu elaborated on his strategic principles, which include ample preparations before war, better manoeuvrability over the adversaries, go-ahead offensive tactics, mobile and allied warfare, secret operations and flexible commanding without always obeying the sovereign's decrees.

《孫子兵法》中闡述最多、最出色的是戰略戰術,戰前充分準備、貴以智謀取勝、掌握戰爭主動權、打運動戰與速決戰、行動神秘莫測、將帥指揮不受君主干擾,這些都是孫子的戰略原則。

The Art of War is rich in dialect thoughts, an example of which is Sun Zi's suggestion that the interactions among climatic, geographical and human factors are pivotal in combats. Also of pivotal importance are the quick and flexible reactions to complicated situations, on which Sun Zi pointed out that " he who can modify his tactics in relation to his opponent and thereby succeed in winning, may be called a heaven-born captain".

另外,他提出臨陣擊敵的戰術技巧有“詭道”十四法、“四治”戰法、集中優勢兵力、出奇制勝、因地制宜、勢險節短、講究陣法、用兵“八戒”等?!端鎰穎ā分諧瀆吮韁に枷?,如他強調“將”、“天”、“地”三者之間的互動互制,提出了綜合天、地、人為一體的系統淪思想。他還強調變化,“能因敵變化而取勝者謂之神”。

His assertion that "all warfare is based on deception" reveals his perception of the special nature of strategics as an art.

此外,他認為“兵者,詭道也”,揭示了軍事的特殊規律。

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